Davide De Rosa

The Bitcoin Script language (pt. 1)

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Script is a simple scripting language, as well as the core of Bitcoin transaction processing. If you ever wrote assembly code you’ll find this article very easy to understand –probably entertaining–, otherwise it might well be one of the most challenging. Keep focused!

Meet machine code

A script is a computer program, and as a programmer you certainly know what a program is. A program takes an input, executes for some time, then returns an output. Programming languages are our tool to write programs that computers will understand, because most languages come with compilers that map human-friendly code to CPU operations, also known as opcodes.


Opcodes include memory manipulation, math, loops, function calls and everything you find in procedural programming languages like C. They make up the spoken language of a CPU, the so-called machine code. Since bytes are computers’ preferred idiom, no wonder opcodes are bytes as well. As a result, machine code is a string of bytes representing operations to be executed on a CPU.

Consider this piece of code in a high-level programming language like C:

x = 0x23;
x += 0x4b;
x *= 0x1e;

Now suppose you want to compile and run this code on a hypothetical little-endian CPU with a single cell of 16-bit memory (a register) and the following set of opcodes:

opcode encoding V
SET(V) ab V 16-bit
ADD(V) ac V 16-bit
MUL(V) ad V 16-bit

The opcodes explained:

  • SET loads the register with the value V.
  • ADD adds V to the register.
  • MUL multiplies the register by V.

A compiler for such a CPU would generate these 9 bytes of machine code:

ab 23 00 ac 4b 00 ad 1e 00

Here’s how it’s interpreted:

  1. Load the register with the value 23.
  2. Add 4b to the register, that is now 23 + 4b = 6e.
  3. Multiply the register by 1e, yielding 6e * 1e = ce4.

The register holds the final result, that is ce4.

Stack memory

Most of the time, we need to track complex program states with variables. In C, depending on whether a variable is allocated statically or with malloc, it’s stored in a differently arranged memory. While malloc-ed data is accessed like an element in a very big array, static variables are pushed to and popped from a pile of items called stack. A stack operates in a LIFO fashion (Last In First Out), meaning that the last item you push will be the first to pop out.

Consider this dummy function:

int foo() {

    /* 1 */

    /* 2 */
    uint8_t a = 0x12;
    uint16_t b = 0xa4;
    uint32_t c = 0x2a5e7;

    /* 3 */
    uint32_t d = a + b + c;

    return d;

    /* 4 */

The stack is initially empty (1):


Then, three variables are pushed (2):

[12, a4 00]
[12, a4 00, e7 a5 02 00]

A fourth variable is assigned the sum of the others and pushed onto the stack (3):

[12, a4 00, e7 a5 02 00, 9d a6 02 00]

The tip of the stack is the return value and is sent back to the function caller by other means. Each temporary stack variable is popped at the end of the block (4), because the push/pop operations must be balanced so that the stack always goes back to its initial state:

[12, a4 00, e7 a5 02 00]
[12, a4 00]

The Script machine code

Likewise, Bitcoin Core has its own “virtual processor” to interpret the Script machine code. Script features a rich set of opcodes, yet very limited compared to full-fledged CPUs like Intel’s, to name one. Some key facts about Script:

  1. Script does not loop.
  2. Script always terminates.
  3. Script memory access is stack-based.

In fact, point 1 implies 2. Point 3 means there’s no such thing like named variables in Script, you just do your calculations on a stack. Typically, the stack items you push become the operands of subsequent opcodes. At the end of the script, the top stack item is the return value.

Before presenting real world scripts, let’s first enumerate some opcodes. For a full set please check out the official wiki page.


The following opcodes push the numbers 0-16 onto the stack:

opcode encoding
OP_0 00
OP_1-OP_16 51-60

By convention, OP_0 and OP_1 also express the boolean OP_FALSE (zero) and OP_TRUE (non-zero).


54 57 00 60


OP_4 OP_7 OP_0 OP_16

Here’s how the stack evolves:

[4, 7]
[4, 7, 0]
[4, 7, 0, 16]

The return value is the top item, so the script returns 16. Quite pointless, I know, but it’s a start.

Push data

Several opcodes are provided to push custom data. They differ in the size of the operands:

opcode encoding L (length) D (data)
OP_PUSHDATA1 4c L D 8-bit L bytes
OP_PUSHDATA2 4d L D 16-bit L bytes
OP_PUSHDATA4 4e L D 32-bit L bytes

For example, if your data length can be stored as a 8-bit number, then OP_PUSHDATA1 is your best choice. Look at this:

4c 14 11 06 03 55 04 8a
0c 70 3e 63 2e 31 26 30
24 06 6c 95 20 30

The first byte is clearly a OP_PUSHDATA1 opcode, followed by a 1-byte length of 14 that is decimal 20. So, 20 bytes of data are coming next. The effect of this instruction is that such data is pushed onto the stack:

[11 06 03 55 04 8a 0c 70
 3e 63 2e 31 26 30 24 06
 6c 95 20 30]

Indeed –like with varints–, there’s a special encoding for very short data. If an opcode lies between 01 and 4b (included), it’s a push data operation where the opcode itself is the length in bytes:

opcode encoding L (length) D (data)
L L D 01-4b L bytes

For example, in the string:

07 8f 49 b2 e2 ec 7c 44

the opcode 07 means that 7 bytes of data are to be pushed:

[8f 49 b2 e2 ec 7c 44]

Next block in chain?

You learned a little bit about machine code and opcodes. Script is a simple low-level language understood by miners software. Script state is tracked with stack memory.

In the next article I’ll show you opcodes that do something more than just pushing data. Please share this post if you enjoyed it and use the form below for questions and comments!